Below is a list of common military plans and programs through which compatibility may be addressed in coordination with mission readiness. The list is not intended to be exhaustive. To learn more about the plans of Maryland's featured military installations, including examples of the plans described below, please visit the installation information pages.
Common Installation Plans and Programs
Installation Master Planning is a stakeholder-driven process that evaluates the present and future physical and operational
development of an installation. All major military installations are required to have a Master Plan under
10 USC 2864. Requirements for Master Plans are established in
DoDI 4165.70, Real Property Management. The key resources for Military Master Planning is the
Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC) 2-100-01 Installation Master Planning, which prescribes DoD requirements for master
planning processes and products in accordance with DoDI 4165.70. The UFC document cited provides guidance for all types
of planning documents that must be prepared, including Installation Development Plans (IDPs), Area Development Plans
(ADPs), and Installation Energy Management Plans (IEMPs).
Installation Development Plan
All major military installations are required to have a Master Plan also referred to as an Installation Development Plan
(IDP), which provides a roadmap for achieving an installation's vision for the next 20 years. In addition, an Area Development
Plan (ADP), which represents a specific area on a base that is unified by its function or architectural character and
provides a detailed plan for future development in specific area, e.g., airfield or town center.
Area Development Plan
An Area Development Plan (ADP) represents a specific area on a base that is unified by its function or architectural character
and provides a detailed plan for future development in that area. An ADP covers a smaller geographic area with greater
detail than an IDP, (e.g., a Town Center or airfield area within an installation). The scale of an ADP typically allows
for more design and development detail at the area site level. An ADP is comparable to a community Small Area Plan or
Neighborhood Plan. An ADP analyzes constraints and opportunities, existing facilities, and program requirements.
View more information on Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC) 2-100-01
Installation Master Planning.
The DoD Operational Noise Program
(DoDI 4715.13) was established to address the far-reaching effects of noise generated by military activities and
to implement the DoD's noise policy in a manner that maintains military readiness and preserves the ability to conduct
testing and training operations. The DoD acknowledges that proactive communication, coordination, and collaborative land
use planning in conjunction with surrounding communities can reduce or prevent impacts on the community, or the military's
ability to carry out its mission. DoDI 4715.13 also established the DoD Noise Working Group (DNWG), which is the DoD
coordinating group for the oversight and operation of the Noise Program, addressing the technical, operational, and legal
aspects associated with military noise.
The Operational Noise Program provides information on aspects necessary for developing comprehensive Noise Management
Programs at military installations and offers guidance to DoD personnel on document review for matters pertaining to
noise generated by military operations. The program also outlines noise modeling guidelines and provides direction on
education and outreach activities that DOD personnel should take regarding military noise and efforts to manage noise
Additionally, the Operational Noise Program sets expectations for continued coordination with and promotion of other compatible
land use programs, encroachment prevention, and outreach programs across the DoD. These include the Office of Local Defense
Community Cooperation's Land Use Programs, Air Installations Compatible Use Zones Program, Range Air Installations Compatible
Use Zones Program, and other encroachment management programs as defined by the respective military branch.
The DoD established the
Air Installation Compatible Use Zone (AICUZ) program in response to increased urban development around military
airfields. The AICUZ program is designed to promote proactive, collaborative planning for compatible community development
to sustain military missions and community goals for air installation operations. The AICUZ composite footprint for an
air installation—the combination of noise contours, Clear Zones, Accident Potential Zones (APZs), and the Hazards to
Aircraft Flight Zone (HAFZ)—defines the minimum acceptable area in which land use control measures are recommended to
protect the public's health, safety, and welfare and sustain the flying mission. Local governments ultimately decide
controls over land use and development in areas neighboring air installations; accordingly, through the AICUZ Program,
local governments are encouraged to plan for and promote compatible community development.1
AICUZ studies are advisory planning documents that are prepared by the military to assist local governments in land-use
planning near an installation while managing development. These studies are initiated in coordination with the installation
and higher headquarters and are the key tools used to communicate with local governments and provide recommendations
for communities to incorporate into their planning regulations. AICUZ studies support the installation and community's
collaborative efforts in compatible land use planning to prevent encroachment. Development of AICUZ studies is a strategic
effort in conjunction with consultant teams, installation leadership, planners, pilots and air operations personnel,
and respective branch headquarters personnel.
Increased urbanization around DoD training and testing ranges, similar to that experienced around installations, began
occurring in the 1990s and drove the need to establish the
Range Air Installations Compatible Use Zones (RAICUZ) Program
The RAICUZ program was established and modeled after the AICUZ Program to protect public health, safety, and welfare,
and to prevent encroachment from degrading the operational capabilities of air-to-ground ranges. Air-to-ground ranges
are specific areas set aside for test and training with live and/or inert ordnance and are unique in that they must be
remote, but accessible and have the land and airspace necessary to conduct the mission.
The Navy and Marine Corps use the RAICUZ program to limit public exposure to hazards and noise or air-to-ground ranges,
protect the military investment in these ranges, promote compatible land use, and educate the public about the RAICUZ
program/installation noise and seek cooperation. Like many other programs in support of compatible use, the success of
the RAICUZ program depends on the installation commander's efforts to work with nearby communities and federal, state,
and local agencies to prevent incompatible development of land adjacent to military ranges.
The military services prepare encroachment management plans as an internal tool and process to identify, quantify, mitigate,
and prevent potential encroachment challenges to an installation or a range that may result in adverse impacts to military
The Marines, Navy, and Air Force have the following internal encroachment management documents that are considered
Controlled Unclassified Information
which cannot be included on this website; however, general guidance is included below.
The DoD is the second largest federal land owner after the U.S. Department of Interior. Much of this land
– the training and testing ranges primarily – has not been developed and can often represent some of the largest areas
of ecosystems that have disappeared due to urban and suburban expansion, interstate highway construction, and other development
activities. The training land on Camp Pendleton in California contains the largest, and nearly last, uninterrupted example
of coastal sage habitat that is critical to the survival of multiple threatened and endangered species. On the east coast,
Camp Lejeune in North Carolina hosts a large percentage of the remaining red-cockaded woodpecker population because the
long-leaf pine ecosystem has been left in place to provide a realistic environment for training Marines on combat in
thickly forested landscaped which could be encountered in foreign countries. DoD, while using the land for mission-critical
testing and training, also serves in a stewardship role and requires the development of integrated plans and partnerships
with external stakeholders to protect and preserve the natural and cultural resources found thereon. Examples of some
of these plans and partnerships include:
In-depth information on the above programs and plans can be found on this site.
Intergovernmental Support Agreements
Congress passed legislation in 2013 creating the authority for Intergovernmental Support Agreements (IGSAs) under 10 USC Section 2679. This new authority allows the military to enter formal partnerships with local and state governments for the provision, receipt, or sharing of installation and community support services.
Through 2021, the military services collectively have negotiated and signed 170 IGSA agreements at nearly 100 installations across the country. The agreements cover many different types of services such as waste removal, training range maintenance and joint use, public transportation, stray animal control, water treatment and testing, road maintenance, facility and utilities maintenance and training, custodial services, computer-aided dispatch, joint military/community police and fire response and training, and snow removal.
IGSAs reduce overall costs to both the military and state/local governments by sharing in the costs of common services acquired by both entities. In addition, the military can often obtain in-kind services in exchange for allowing the state or local governments to use non-excess but under-utilized real property for projects such as alternative energy, housing, or other infrastructure that can be accessed by the military (power sources, military housing, etc.). These services improve the quality of life in the community surrounding the installation. When the IGSA is structured this way, the military and community agree on a value of the real property and the community provides free services that add up to the assessed value of the property, thus eliminating operation and maintenance expenditures when obtaining those services.
Report GAO-19-4 completed in October, 2018, the U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) examined eight IGSAs and found that the services from just these eight will generate at least $9 million in annual benefits, including cost savings and avoidances. GAO also determined that entering IGSAs created non-financial benefits such as enhanced mission effectiveness and readiness, reduced administrative time, and improved relationships with surrounding communities. The following examples highlight Fort Detrick's two IGSAs, both of which earned 2018 Army Community Partnership Awards.
Fort Detrick and Frederick County placed
CAD equipment that is owned, operated, and maintained by Frederick County in the dispatch center and in emergency vehicles.
Frederick County is the Public Service Answering Point (PSAP) for Fort Detrick. Emergency calls are received by the PSAP
and routed to Fort Detrick Fire and Emergency Services via CAD. Joining the mutual system allows Fort Detrick responders
and dispatchers to view the location of other emergency service vehicles across the county and dispatch the closest appropriate
response vehicle or team.
The benefits to Fort Detrick include initial savings of $448K and annual savings of $30K in direct costs involving the hardware
and software upgrades to allow it to connect with the county. The IGSA also improved interoperability of emergency responders
and further strengthened the relationship between Frederick County, the City of Frederick, and Fort Detrick.
Fort Detrick partnered with Frederick County to help in the disposal of non-medical solid waste through
an IGSA, which allows Fort Detrick to bring non-medical solid waste to the county's landfill station for the standard fee
of about $70 per ton. Fort Detrick had been disposing of this waste using their on-base incinerator. However, the costs
of operating and maintaining the older facility along with capital expenses for upgrades to maintain compliance with increasingly
strict federal and state environmental standards became unsustainable.
The base performed a lifecycle cost-benefit analysis, comparing the cost of upgrading or replacing the incinerator to using
the county landfill for non-medical wastes. The landfill option was much less expensive and far less risky from a compliance
standpoint. The initial agreement was for 180 days and subsequently, the county updated its solid waste management plan
to allow the agreement to continue through 2037.
While Fort Detrick shut down the existing incinerator, it is now considering constructing a new incinerator on site for medical
wastes that are currently shipped to Curtis Bay for treatment and disposal. The non-medical wastes generated by Fort Detrick
will continue to be disposed of at the county landfill per the IGSA regardless of whether a new incinerator is constructed.
Defense Alliances and Small Business Support
Across Maryland, the private sector has established and promoted Defense Alliances, which are nonprofit organizations comprised of economic development, military, and defense business representatives that work together to facilitate communication among the federal agencies, installations, and community at large to ensure long-term viability and mission support for local installations. Their purpose is to protect and support installation missions, programs, jobs, and military families. The Defense Alliances also serve to position Maryland installations for favorable outcomes in future
Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) actions.
Maryland's Defense Alliances
Each installation has an Office of Small Business Programs to promote acquisition opportunities for Maryland small businesses and provide resources and business support for small business defense contractors.
1 Air Force Handbook 32-7084, AICUZ Program Manager's Guide, Department of the Air Force.2 Encroachment Management Program Fact Sheet. Naval Facilities Engineering Command.